Research News 2019

2018 research news
Endodontics Awards

Dr. Hazard and Dr. Vislisel Receive Awards at the 2019 AAE Annual Meeting

Apr 19, 2019

Dr. Mikaela Hazard and Dr. Jered Vislisel, both second-year Endodontic residents, each received awards for their oral presentations at the 2019 American Association of Endodontics Annual Meeting. According to Dr. Fabricio Teixeira, DEO of the Department of Endodontics, "this was a magnificent achievement considering the level of presentations at the meeting. We had a total of 875 presentations and the University of Iowa had two winners among the 10 ten in the Oral presentations category. They did a superb job and made all of us very proud."

Endo Awards.jpg Dr. Hazard and Dr. Vislisel are shown in the center of the photo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gustavo Avila-Ortiz

Maximizing Bone Preservation

Mar 08, 2019

For each month spent on the International Space Station, an astronaut will lose approximately one to two percent of bone mass. Since the skeleton is not being used to support the full weight of the body, the bones weaken and lose mass and density. When a bone is not being properly stimulated, it usually undergoes disuse atrophy and subsequently shrinks. When a tooth is removed from its socket, this resorptive phenomenon also occurs with the alveolar bone—the bone that provides direct support to the teeth.

Just as scientists have found ways for astronauts to maintain and strengthen bones while living in space, Dr. Gustavo Avila-Ortiz is exploring new therapies to preserve the alveolar bone.

It is common to lose a significant amount of alveolar ridge volume in the first three to six months after a tooth extraction. “Without a tooth there to stimulate the bone, the alveolar ridge volume will decrease,” Avila-Ortiz explained. “Bone loss can lead to an intense remodeling of the contour of the alveolar ridge, which may make it difficult to replace a missing tooth with a dental implant,” he added.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, clinicians began to explore various ways to preserve the alveolar bone. “Over the years different bone substitutes, like bovine-derived xenograft or a human-derived allograft, typically applied in a particulate form, have been used to fill the tooth socket after tooth extraction in an attempt to reduce alveolar bone resorption. It has also been shown that sealing the socket orifice with a barrier material, such as a biocompatible membrane, is important to protect the underlying bone during the healing process.  This approach, known as alveolar ridge preservation, is a widely used therapy in contemporary practice. But it is not the only available option” Avila-Ortiz commented.

Another alveolar ridge preservation treatment involves intentionally leaving part of the tooth in the socket to stimulate the bone. “Although it can work, this treatment is technically hard, it isn’t always possible, and it may increase the risk of infections and failure of implant integration,” Avila-Ortiz said.

Although he admits that there is no single fix-it-all solution, Avila-Ortiz has been researching how different biomaterials can preserve the natural architecture of the bone after an extraction, minimize the detrimental effects of tooth loss, shorten the healing time between extraction and placing an implant, and reduce the need for additional bone grafting to allow for implant placement.

Recently, Avila-Ortiz has been working with Dr. Liu Hong and Dr. Brad Amendt, using the extraction socket as a research model, on therapies that would apply microRNA therapy for oral bone regeneration purposes. “It’s really very promising, and we are almost ready to initiate the first clinical trials with humans,” Avila-Ortiz said.

One of the main goals of Avila-Ortiz’s research in this area is to discover both new therapies and the influence that patient-specific factors (i.e., local and systemic) have on the outcomes of treatment.  “One size does not fit all. One of our objectives is to deliver individualized care to each of our patients,” Avila-Ortiz explained.

Rena D'Souza

The College of Dentistry’s Annual Local AADR Research Day Was a Great Success

Feb 15, 2019

With over 100 presentations from students, staff, and faculty and an excellent keynote address by Dr. Rena D’Souza, the College of Dentistry’s Annual Local AADR Research Day was a great success. 

Our keynote speaker, Dr. D’Souza, is Professor of Neurobiology, Pathology, and Medicine and the Associate Vice President of Research at the University of Utah School of Medicine. As an outstanding scholar, leader, and mentor in our profession, she has held and continues to hold many prominent positions at her university and in the wider profession, including serving as President of the International Association for Dental Research, the 41st President of the American Association for Dental Research, and many other prominent positions related to oral health. 

According to Dr. Brad Amendt, this is the first time that the current IADR president has addressed the college for our Research Day.

Dr. D’Souza expressed admiration for the college's efforts to develop an integrated research program that includes basic science, translational, and clinical research. She said that the college has become a cutting-edge institution in this respect, and in her opinion, it is why “Iowa is one of the top 10, if not top 5 dental colleges in the United States.”

Dr. D’Souza’s keynote address covered a variety of topics including important areas for research in dentistry and the oral sciences, her goals for the IADR, and the specific kinds of genetic research that she has explored personally.

College of Dentistry researchers are playing important roles in some of the important areas for research that Dr. D’Souza highlighted, including big data analysis, precision and personalized medicine, genomic research, microbiome research particularly regarding prebiotics or probiotics for the oral microbiome, and translational and clinical research.

And Dr. D’Souza’s own research shows the great value of collaborating with colleagues in a variety of related fields—from clinicians working with basic science researchers to oral science researchers learning from hair follicle research.

After her keynote address, Dr. D’Souza spent a great deal of time talking with faculty, staff, and students.

It was a wonderful opportunity for the college to deepen our relationship with Dr. D’Souza.

 Pictures of Research Day 

Research Day really starts years in advance as students, faculty, and staff produce their research. These posters are a reflection of their work, and the support from our excellent staff in Ed Media. Presenters hung their posters the night before Research Day.

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Research Day started bright and early with a great deal of snowfall the night before.

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Dean Johnsen speaking with our keynote speaker, Dr. Rena D’Souza.

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Despite the weather, Dr. D’Souza was speaking to big crowd.

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A series of photos of students presenting their research

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Butali, Azeez

Dr. Azeez Butali Received a $25,000 Subaward Grant to Study Genetic and Environmental Risks for Oral Clefts in Puerto Rican Hispanics

Feb 15, 2019

As a part of Dr. Butali’s broad collaboration with researchers around the world, Dr. Butali and his research team will sequence DNA from cleft families and controls from Puerto Rico. They will also analyze and interpret results. Furthermore, Dr. Butali will provide input on all aspects of future specific study designs, train personnel from the San Juan site, and assure safety and quality of the data.

This project is part of his larger research goal of understanding population differences in cleft etiology and providing new insights in craniofacial development.

Dr. Butali discusses this on-going work in this video.

Erliang Zeng

Dr. Erliang Zeng Awarded $68,652 Grant for a Project Investigating Tumors in Children

Feb 08, 2019

The New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) granted Dr. Erliang Zeng a subaward grant for a project funded by the National Cancer Institute, a part of the NIH. The project, Molecular Circuit of Multi-ciliogenesis Regulates Choroid Plexus Differentiation and Tumor Development, investigates how the molecular circuit of malignant choroid plexus tumors in children interact with signaling pathways as the tumors are formed. Dr. Zeng will be responsible for leading efforts in bioinformatics development and data analysis for the project. Dr. Zeng brings significant expertise to provide outstanding support for the project on the omics data integration and bioinformatics analysis. This project will foster the already existing relationship and collaboration between subaward PI Erliang Zeng at UI and PI Haotian Zhao at NYIT and will strengthen the bioinformatics program development in the Division of Biostatistics and Computational Biology of the UI College of Dentistry.

Teixeira, Erica

Dr. Erica Teixeria Continues Industry-University Collaboration with New Grant

Feb 01, 2019

Tokuyama Dental Corporation awarded Dr. Erica Teixeria a $134,000 grant for the project, “Esthetic outcomes of a newly developed dental composite and adhesive system: a randomized clinical trial.”

Dr. Teixeria’s project continues a long-term partnership between the College of Dentistry and Tokuyama. More specifically, Dr. Teixeria and her research team will conduct a 36-month randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate and compare the esthetic outcomes and patient satisfaction of a simplified newly developed dental composite system for the esthetic region to a nanohybrid composite system. Although dental composite systems have been used extensively for the anterior region, it can still be difficult for clinicians to select the proper shade and the materials may not last as long as clinicians would like. This new system has been developed to improve the esthetic outcomes and patient satisfaction by enhancing its blending capability.

Dr. Teixeria research team includes: Drs. Amira Ahmed, Steve Armstrong, Hanan Elgendy, Sandra Guzman-Armstrong, Aditi Jain, Justine Kolker, Rodrigo Maia, Patricia Meredith, Cristina Vidal, Marcos Vargas, Xian Jin Xie, and research coordinator Karen Kluesner. 

Jin Xie

A World-Class Program for Biostatistics and Computational Biology

Jan 25, 2019

XieTeam_082018_400wide.jpgFrom baseball to politics, big data has taken the world by storm. It has revolutionized our recreational pursuits and our health care decisions. Oral health research is no exception to this trend, and the College of Dentistry is on the cutting edge of that trend.

The Division of Biostatistics and Computational Biology provides statistical and computational expertise for the college’s research projects. Although in past generations statistical analysis was mostly performed by an individual researcher, it is now an expectation that elite biomedical research centers have a designated biostatistics division.

“A single person is simply not adequate anymore. The databases are too large and of great complexity, and any person would have to know database management, frequentist methods, Bayesian methods, bioinformatics, structural equation modeling, etc.,” said Dr. Xian Jin Xie, director of the Division of Biostatistics and Computational Biology.

Xie joined the college a little over a year ago in fall 2017, and since then, his division has worked with over 40 researchers at the college. Xie has really appreciated the collegial working environment. “Everyone is so easy to work with and the faculty really support one another,” said Xie. “This environment really lays the foundation for achieving more NIH grants, and potentially large multi-investigator program grants,” Xie added. 

Xie also underscored how much support he’s received from the college administration. “We have received great support from Dean Johnsen, Dean Schneider, and Dean Amendt. Everything we’ve asked for, they’ve given us.”

And Xie has asked for a lot! Ultimately, he aims for the division to become a model for dental colleges across the country. “We are the first college in the country to have a division of biostatistics and computational biology,” Xie said. This new methodological focus is poised to become the new standard. 

Xie’s first year plan had three goals for accomplishing that ambitious goal.

First, he sought to recruit high quality faculty and research staff, like associate professor Dr. Erliang Zeng, a new faculty member in the division who specializes in bioinformatics. Adding Zeng was crucial for establishing the division’s expertise in computational biology.

Second, he wanted to continuing building on the college’s grant writing success, and his division has helped with 10 NIH grant submissions and many foundation sponsored grants this past year.

Third, he plans to develop educational modules and one-hour lectures to help improve knowledge of statistical methods with the aim of helping all of our researchers, but especially our clinical researchers who want to do research but have limited time because of their extensive clinical responsibilities

Although a great deal of Xie’s attention is dedicated to serving as the director of the division and advising on dental research projects, he also conducts and publishes his own statistical research on 1), statistical model diagnosis; 2), high throughput data analysis; and 3), new design of Phase I Clinical trials.

“In my position, you need a breadth of knowledge to support various basic science and clinical research projects, but it’s always fulfilling and enjoyable to have your own research too,” said Xie.

The Division of Biostatistics and Computational Biology is located on the first floor of the north wing of the Dental Science Building and is available for consults for upcoming research projects.

Cristina Vidal

From the Bench to the Chair: Translational and Clinical Research at the College of Dentistry

Jan 11, 2019

Dental researchers at the college have a strong history of pursuing basic, clinical, and translational research in a collaborative and supportive environment with the goal of improving patient care. “The ultimate goal of our research is to benefit and contribute to our community and society,” said Dr. Cristina Vidal, assistant professor in operative dentistry. 

The college’s translational and clinical research has flourished by drawing knowledge and experience from College of Dentistry colleagues and other disciplines—from medicine to physics, from public health to engineering.

“Many questions in dentistry can be addressed, at least in part, with advances that have been made in other fields such as medicine or engineering. So I often start by asking ‘What approaches are being used in other fields?’” said Dr. Kyungsup Shin, assistant professor in orthodontics and director of clinical research for the college.

Trishul_DSBW.jpgFor example, in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, clinical professor Dr. Trishul Allareddy has been using his expertise to improve the quality of dental radiographic images as the co-chair of the Standards Committee on Dental Informatics for the American Dental Association and Co-Chair of DICOM international standard for Dentistry.

“Most of the 180,000 US dentists make radiographs in their offices, but they have minimal training in radiology in dentistry and often the scope of that training does not address quality assurance across all modalities of imaging in dentistry,” said Allareddy, “and that’s why it is so important to know how things should be done.”

Having high-quality images requires a goldilocks level of radiation—just enough to get sufficient information for clinical judgments, but not too much, which exposes the patient to too much radiation.

“Unfortunately, many of the digital intraoral radiographs that dentists take are not clinically useful as the patients are underexposed and the radiographs do not have enough information,” Allareddy explained.

In addition to creating standards for the use of x-rays in dental clinics, Allareddy is also researching best practices for the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentistry. CBCT technology is used when regular dental radiographs are not sufficient—for example, in cases of oral cancer or for dental implants.

“Dentists need to be aware of what imaging tools are useful in which contexts; it’s really about optimizing our care for each patient,” Allareddy said.

Vidal_Portrait_111418b_small.jpgThat’s also a central part of Vidal’s research. Whether designing materials that will take less time to use or discovering bioactive materials and mechanisms that can stimulate and regenerate teeth, Vidal’s research is focused on patient well-being.

Two of Vidal’s recent projects illustrate this line of research. In one, she is investigating a novel universal bonding agent that doesn’t require any light curing—and thus, it could reduce the time a patient spends in the dentist’s chair. Her research team will determine how well this new agent performs and make recommendations for its use in clinics.

In another, her team is exploring how a certain plant-derived compound that can preserve, repair, and restore the bond between dentin and resin material.

Although these particular clinical applications are important, Vidal is also interested in the underlying mechanisms. “By understanding both the enzymes that degrade collagen, and the natural processes that inhibit degradation of the resin-dentin bond, we will have a greater understanding of the most efficient and least invasive approaches in the clinic,” Vidal said.

Kyungsup_DSBW.jpgLike Allareddy and Vidal, Shin’s research—specializing on the temporomandibular joints (TMJ)—exemplifies the college’s patient-oriented and collaborative research.

After asking about approaches in related fields, Shin found out that an orthopedic research group (Dr. Don Anderson) had used medical CT images of leg fractures to determine the risk for developing arthritis as a result of the fracture. Shin wanted to apply that research to his specialty, the TMJ.

Drawing on Allareddy’s expertise in radiology and CBCT images, Shin hopes to develop a predictive diagnostic tool using CBCT images to assess the risk of developing osteoarthisis in the TMJs after trauma to the joint. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis in this joint is particularly challenging to treat, often requiring extensive surgical procedures.

“Without reliable predictive diagnostic tools, we don’t really know when to intervene to prevent long-term complications associated with post- traumatic osteoarthritis,” Shin explained.

Shin has also been collaborating with colleagues in other colleges—Dr. Aliasger Salem in pharmacy and Dr. James Martin in medicine—on basic science research concerning bone and cartilage tissue regeneration in the TMJ.

Allareddy, Vidal, and Shin are wonderful pictures of the collaborative, translational, and clinical research being conducted at the College of Dentistry. Whether patients are having a dental radiograph made, having a broken tooth repaired, or having surgery on their temporomandibular joint, these researchers are finding a way to make a difference.